MEET PHARMACO - WORLD'S FIRST DECENTRALIZED PHARMACY

The Pharmaco Project aims to create and develop the world’s first Decentralized Pharmacy Platform with a huge difference and a Global Reach. It will become not only a Decentralized Physician Verification System, a Secure Encrypted Decentralized Patient Records Administration Service Database along with the world’s first Decentralized Prescription Service Platform but it will flood it’s logistical pipeline with a fully accessible full-spectrum Non-Radioactive Health-Screening Service.

 

The Vision of the Founders behind this project was to provide a Safer Storage of, and Verification and Controlled Access to, Private Patient Data and other Sensitive Information and Records on a Secure Blockchain and then accurately address any questions with respect to the nature of various medications, their uses and side-effects as well the prevention of these various disease. As well, in a perfect proprietary quadrangle of Technology, Services and Information Flow, PATIENT-PHYSICIAN-PRESCRIPTION-PHARMACY, we will be expanding and streamlining the ability of Patients to choose from a World wide Registry of Certified Physicians and to be able to seek Second Opinions where needed; we would also be giving Patients the capability to lower the Costs of their overall Health-care and Medications; we will also, as a normal course of operations be validating the Credentials of Physicians and other Healthcare givers whilst providing a top-notch Peer Reviewed recommendations Daily Report of BOTH Physicians and Pharmacies world-wide.

By 2021, when we hit our planned targets and goals, Pharmaco seeks to become the most efficient Secure Global Tracking and Delivery System for the entire Health Industry. Major Pharmaceutical companies, Local Government Regulators and Policy Makers, the Professional Medical Associations and their members and the General Public will benefit from the Security of our Artificial Intelligence infused Smart Contracts, Advanced Data Analytics and Robust Blockchain. Our Blockchain will allow for more efficient processes and methods as well as a more transparent supply chain for both Services, Information and Medicines. Our system, as are all systems put on a Blockchain, is Safe, Secure, Encrypted and Immutable.

After the pre-ICO investment phase, a second Whitepaper and Road Map will follow with a more Technical portrayal and breakdown of the projects Core Technology and Blockchain Architecture, Smart Contracts and API's.

Thanks to groundbreaking technological innovations and the use of blockchain technology, we have created a system capable of overcoming the medical industry’s major flaws and constraints, as well as to significantly improve the cost and efficiency of healthcare for patients all over the world.

Pharmaco seeks to create a tightly knit community in the healthcare industry, by rewarding investors in the project with crypto currency. Thanks to its broad purpose and its generous reward system, the Pharmaco will reach a wide market, beyond the traditional buyers of crypto currencies.

HUMBLE BEGINNINGS

The decentralized Pharmacy began from a simple concept scribbled out on napkins amongst friends who were Engineers, Doctors, and Pharmacists, in a coffee shop. After the original concept was reduced into an easy to comprehend presentation, we persistently reached out to all interested partners and organically assembled our team through an extensive interview process. Along the way, we were fortunate enough to find some extremely promising mentors and partners from all over the world who are firmly dedicated and eager to work with the constantly advancing Vision of the decentralized pharmacy.

 

After months of networking and extensive practical and technical research used to refine our project for the market, our brainchild of humble beginnings is now positioned to take on the intricacies of Supply Chain Management, Information Management and Blockchain Technology incorporated into a Global Framework and become a major player in the 1.072 Trillion dollar pharmaceutical industry as well as the 23 billion dollar Tele-Medical industry. These numbers are expected to grow to 3 Trillion and 41.2 billion respectively.

 

Now that we are rapidly approaching the ICO stage, we would like to extend our gratitude to all those that supported us. We are excited to play a major role in making a serious impact on the world and wish to serve our community by consistently exceeding all the expectations that we set forth.

ROADMAP

 

Pre-ICO Investment Phase begins - August 2018

ERC Token Release is scheduled for - October 2018

Formation of Pharmaco Foundation is set for - December 2018

PHARMACO.COM fully interactive decentralized pharmacy v0.1 Release - Jan 2019

Critical feature of Client Dashboard to be released - March 2019

Finalize Platform Scalability Designed and site is now v0.2 – May 2019

PHARMACO Platform Scalability, Performance & Security is enhanced – May 2019

APP Design & Development for use with Local Platforms– July 2019

Stress Test of Interoperability interfaces API Ecosystem with other Global Platforms

Begin Multi-Language Information Exchange Design- October 2019

Begin Production of Global Multi-modal Infrastructure Readiness - December 2019

Complete Global Data Centre Design and Network Building Strategies - January 2020

Adapt and Integrate Custom Dashboard design & User Interfaces - March 2020

Launch Client Implementations across the Globe - June 2020

Release IOS & Android APPs and integrate with Community Dashboards - Sept 2020

Platform and  Token

Pharmaco is the World’s first Decentralized Pharmacy and has, for now, an ethereum based Token but we are building our own Robust and Secure block-chain platform regulated by AI built into Smart Contracts. The platform supports the pharmaceutical and Tele-medical community by building Solutions capable of improving the quality and affordability of medical care and the pharmaceuticals required for it.

Block-chain technology allows us here at the decentralized pharmacy to improve the world by extending access to vital prescriptions and drugs to those who couldn't previously afford as well as providing an extra sense of safety and anonymity to those who use its platform.

 

The Pharmaco token creates market intelligence through a crypto-currency remuneration framework that prompts and encourages cooperation and consensus throughout its growing community. Clients will have the opportunity to provide customer experience reviews of both their chosen doctors and pharmacists to help ensure complete peer-to-peer quality control and ensure optimal processing times and positive future experiences for all within the network. The remuneration framework will encourage all parties to serve the needs of the community in an expedited fashion while also strengthening the products and services itself indirectly through the utilization of its base cryptocurrency. All market players (Pharmacists, Doctors, and Patients) will find themselves in a win-win-win situation with the establishment of the Pharmaco token within the industry.

 

                                                               

There are 690,000,000 (Six hundred and ninety million) Pharmaco tokens. One Pharmaco token is referred to as an “XRX”. It is deployed using the ERC223 token standard. Its value will be derived from its projected release to all Exchanges with Ether and is configured to be used interoperably on a Global scale through the Ethereum blockchain.

 

Rounds of Funding will be broken down into 3 phases. While the Pharmaco token’s price will remain stable throughout, the first two rounds will offer a generous token bonus to reward early investors and adopters in the project.

 

Price: 2000 tokens = 1 ETH

Phase 1- 80 million tokens will be sold with 50% token bonus

Phase 2- 120 million tokens will be sold with 25% token bonus

Phase 3- 160 million tokens will be sold

Bored Assets – 70 Million Tokens

                Developers- 10 Million Tokens

                Operational (Marketing, Advertising, Law, Compliance)- 30 million Tokens

                Founders- 30 Million Tokens

 

 Foundation- 60 Million Tokens

 

Marketing and Distribution – Up to 70 Million tokens will be allocated for Affiliates during the ICO.

                                                              

 

(Any tokens unclaimed by Affiliates will be allocated to the Foundation)

 

Giveaways- 30 Million Tokens

                Social Media- 20 Million Tokens

                Bloggers- 10 Million Tokens

Affiliate Opportunity

Pharmaco is intent upon rewarding those who saw our vision prior to the mainstream adaptation of our technologies and who believed in us. As such we have developed a generous Affiliate program that will be available during our ICO phase. Each affiliate will be provided a unique trackable link upon request and will be rewarded with bonus tokens at the end of Phase 3 of our ICO. This is simply our thanks to you for helping us to achieve the goal of a Healthier and Happier World.

 

 

Tokens Purchased Through Link Token Bonus
Up to 2000 5.00%
2001-500,000 10.00%
500,000-1,500,000 15.00%
More than 1,500,001 20.00%

A Coin for the Community

 

Sreedhar Potarazu stated in an article that appeared on CNN that ¨In a country where all men and women are created equal, health care must be affordable for all of us, not only for some. The ever-rising cost of prescription drugs is hindering everything we've achieved in health care. We need to keep those costs in check, and we need to take steps to do it now.¨[1]

The XRX Token was created to assist Pharmaco in fulfilling its mission, as stated above, by giving back control and power to the people when it comes to their data and healthcare. Pharmaco has developed a number of tools to make healthcare and prescription medication more accessible and affordable during these trying times of such economic inequality.

 

                                               

The Pharmaco Foundation’s core beliefs are firmly rooted in the vision of building a future medical and pharmaceutical industry that will fall back into the control of the general population. To create a currency that represents people and possibilities. This will inevitably bring about the disruption of many current enterprises in both the short and long term however it will allow for the formation of many new ventures that will be cheaper, faster and better serve the people of our planet. We expect our platform to dramatically enhance the health and quality of life for millions of individuals worldwide, resulting in greater longevity, productivity and happiness on a global scale.

 

                                               

As read in the Harvard Business review: “Blockchain networks tend to support principles, like open access and permissionless use, that should be familiar to proponents of the early internet. To protect this vision from political pressure and regulatory interference, blockchain networks rely on a decentralized infrastructure that can’t be controlled by any one person or group. Unlike political regulation, Blockchain governance is not emergent from the community. Rather, it is ex ante, encoded in the protocols and processes as an integral part of the original network architecture. To be a part of a community supporting a Blockchain is to accept the rules of the network as they were originally established.”

 

The integration of Blockchain Technology in the Pharmaceutical and Tele-medical field is a revolutionary concept. A concept that will thrive through the development of a devoted community where transparency and shared responsibility can occur. With the growing support of hundreds of thousands and with our network growing stronger each day, Pharmaco is poised to help the world take a Quantum Leap forward in its ability to improve the lives of its citizens and make accessible, Healthcare, Medicines and Private Medical Data Protection for everyone .

[1] Sreedhar Potarazu, “Rising cost of prescription drugs threatens healthcare gains”, CNN, August 26, 2015, <http://edition.cnn.com/2015/08/26/opinions/potarazu-drug-price-hikes/index.html>, last accessed November 12, 2017.

Worldwide Implementation

An existing network of thousands of interested Doctors, Pharmacists and Patients will aid in the worldwide implementation of our technologies. The Pharmaco platform is being worked on around the clock by an elite team of Blockchain and Coding professionals to ensure an environment that is incredibly user-friendly, secure and stable. All interactions within the network will be fueled through an ERC-223 token. While the ERC-223 token will in and of itself hold value, the objective is not to contend with the other cryptocurrencies that exist, but rather to extend a viable Solution for the Problems that are inherent within the Pharmaceutical and Tele-medical community through the use of a Secure and Robust  Blockchain.

 

The Pharmaco Foundation is preparing itself to tackle the challenges of the ever evolving areas of Fintech and Logistics to bring to market a unique product that is expected to be a catalyst in the way the Healthcare industry provides for its customers. The Pharmaco Token is essentialin its realizing of its mission as it will provide a stable measure of the value the Foundation is offering to the world. Numerous tools that will be detailed in the upcoming Whitepaper, will be offered on the Decentralized Pharmacy's platform that will dramatically change the speed, security, and anonymity of transactions between parties. The individuals or businesses that utilize these tools will receive a set number of Pharmaco Tokens through the remunerate framework. These tokens can then be spent within the network as payment for their prescription medication and Tele-health screening, saved as an investment for future medical expenses, or traded on a number of Exchanges.

REMUNARATE FRAMEWORK

(This will be out in December 2018 in the new PHARMACO Whitepaper)

BENEFITS to SOCIETY

*Providing Cost Effective Medications to patients who cannot afford it

*Providing an  Ease of Delivery for the elderly or the handicapped

*Providing an alternative Medical solution for the uninsured

*Reducing the Risk of buying Counterfeited Drugs

In the United States, in 2012, the average annual cost per inmate was $31,286. Over a year, that represents a cost of around $39 billion to American taxpayers. In total, the taxpayer cost of prisons across the country was 13.9% higher than the correctional budget[1]. The figures vary depending on the state, so this is an average number.

 

[1] “The Price Of Prisons - What incarceration costs taxpayers”, Vera Institute Of Justice, February 2012.

Source: Vera Institute of Justice

An estimated 2.3 million people are locked up in the United States. Of those people, 1 in 5 were arrested for a drug offense, and more than 1 million individuals are arrested every year for drug possession. This includes prescription medication procured illegally[1].

[1] Peter Wagner and Bernadette Rabuy, “Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017”, Prison Policy Initiative, March 14, 2017,

<https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2017.html>, last accessed November 12, 2017.

Thanks to Pharmaco, less people will have to resort to the black market to get the medication they need, which in turn will put less people in prison. Eventually, this will mean less money to be paid by the American taxpayers to sustain those who are imprisoned. If only 1% of the drug offenders stop their activity because they can now find affordable medication legally and do not go to prison, it would mean 4,600 less people a year being imprisoned, which amounts to $144 million saved by the American taxpayers.

MARKET SIZE

 

Prescription drug usage has never been as high as it is now in the United States. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “in 2013-2014, 36.5% of adults aged 18-44, 69.6% of adults aged 45-64, and 90.8% of those aged 65 and over, took a prescription drug in the past month - up from levels in 1988-1994”[1]. Since 1975, the percentage of expenditure dedicated to prescription drugs increased from 7.1% to 11.9%. This, among other factors, can be explained by the fact that Americans live longer thanks to the progress of medicine. However, as we grow older, a greater portion of the population is exposed to several chronic conditions requiring treatment with one or several prescription medications. As a matter of fact, “between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014, the use of at least one prescription drug in the past 30 days increased 5.2 percentage points for adults aged 65 and over”[2]. At the same time, usage of prescription drugs for other age groups increased less rapidly.

Usage of multiple medications at the same time has also increased for adults during the period 1988-1994 to 2013-2014. The proportion of adults having used five or more prescription drugs in the past 30 days has increased by 2.7% for adults aged 18-44, 12.8% for adults aged 45-64, and 28.4% for those aged 65 and over[3].

 

Usage in the world

 

Pharmaceutical spending, Total, US dollar per capita, 2015[4].

“Pharmaceutical spending covers expenditure on prescription medicines and self-medication, often referred to as over-the-counter products. In some countries, other medical non-durable goods are also included. Pharmaceuticals consumed in hospitals and other health care settings are excluded.”

 

Along with the proportion of people taking prescription drugs, the counterfeit market for those drugs has grown exponentially. “In 2006, the WHO estimated that 10% of drugs worldwide were counterfeit, with the figure at 25% in developing countries”[5]. It is estimated that the market for market counterfeit prescription drugs ranges between 75 and 200 billion dollars[6].

 

By 2022, it is expected the world pharmaceutical bill will increase by compounding 6.3%[7]. In addition, by then, 50% of the world’s Top 100 product sales will come from biologics.

Insurance coverage in the USA

 

As of September 2016, 12.3% of Americans remained without any medical insurance coverage. The percentage is higher for those aged 19-25, as 14.6% of them are uninsured.

As they have to pay out of pocket, uninsured families have higher medical expenses relative to income than insured families. However, they tend to spend less money on healthcare as they use fewer and less costly services[8]. Uninsured adults face a 40% higher risk to die than adults covered by a private insurance. In 2009, 45,000 deaths were linked to lack of health care insurance, according to a study published in the American Journal of Public Health[9].

The real problem though, lies within the cost of prescription drugs. According to a survey by Consumer Reports, 10% of Americans, those insured included, are paying as much as an extra $100 out of pocket for their medication, while 33% are paying an average $39 more[10]. Even more alarming, 40% of Americans had to take drastic measures to save money on medication. “Drugs to treat asthma, high blood pressure, and irregular heart rhythm medications top the list of drugs that have seen prices increases in the last several years.”[11]

[1] Chartbook on long-term trends in health, CDC,  USA, 2016

[2] Chartbook on long-term trends in health, CDC,  USA, 2016

[3] Chartbook on long-term trends in health, CDC,  USA, 2016

[4] OECD (2017), Pharmaceutical spending (indicator). doi: 10.1787/998febf6-en (Accessed on 15 October 2017)

[5] “Counterfeit Medicines”, World Health Organization, February 2006,

<https://www.gphf.org/images/downloads/library/who_factsheet275.pdf>, last accessed October 14, 2017.

[6] “Poison Pills”, The Economist, September 2, 2010,

<http://www.economist.com/node/16943895>, last accessed October 14, 2017.

[7] “World Preview 2016, Outlook To 2022”, Evaluate Pharma, September 2016,

<http://info.evaluategroup.com/rs/607-YGS-364/images/wp16.pdf>, last accessed October 16, 2017.

[8] Hidden Costs, Values Lost - Unisurance in America, National Academies Press, Washington DC: 2003.

[9] David Crecece, “New Study Finds 45,000 deaths annually linked to lack of health coverage”, Harvard Gazette, September 17, 2009, <https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2009/09/new-study-finds-45000-deaths-annually-linked-to-lack-of-health-coverage/>, last accessed November 12, 2017.

[10] “Are You Paying More For Your Rx Meds?”, Consumer Reports, August 13, 2015.

[11] “Are You Paying More For Your Rx Meds?”, Consumer Reports, August 13, 2015.

RANGE of PRODUCTS

 

In order to best serve our community, we have researched some of the leading needs of our projected network end users. These types of medications and the legal provision of them we intend to assist with through our technologies, are areas of much controversy due to all the damage that comes along, when medical advice is not sought from a certified professional and they are used irresponsibly. The data provided below for each selected drug category will further illustrate the growing need for a platform like the decentralized pharmacy.

Testosterone

In the United States, the use of testosterone is quite widespread, and is continually increasing. Studies have shown that 1 to 3 million people are using testosterone without having access to a prescription in the country[1]. This represents around 1% of the total population.

“Over the last decade, prescriptions for testosterone therapy among men aged 40 and older increased more than threefold, from 0.81% in 2001, to nearly 3% in 2011”[2]. What those numbers fail to include however, is the number of people using testosterone therapy without going through the doctor route, getting their supplies from underground, illegal laboratories.

Being completely unregulated and unmonitored, the products coming out of these underground laboratories are problematic in several ways. Illegal manufacturing “often results in contamination of heavy metals or high levels of bacteria. There are also concerns with products being under dosed, overdosed, misbranded, or mislabeled completely”[3]. In some cases, the product labeled on a bottle is actually a completely different to what the bottle actually contains. This can lead to serious health hazards for users. Underground laboratories are often located in apartment bedrooms or bathrooms, lacking sterility.

In addition, “most underground labs purchase their raw materials from Chinese factories. The factories that are willing to produce steroid raw materials so they can be illegally smuggled into the US, usually know they can cut some corners when producing these hormone powders to save money. Many times, these cheaply made steroid powders are contaminated with heavy metals such as tin, lead, and arsenic. An underground lab doesn’t have the means to remove heavy metals from the steroid powders or from the finished products”[4].

For users, consuming such products can lead to severe side effects, including headaches, pain, weakness, muscle pain, joint pain and tiredness. Some types of bacteria can also be responsible for fever or infections. Long-term usage of contaminated testosterone can eventually result in organ damage and, in extreme cases, death.

 

[1] “Steroid statistics”, Steroidal.com,

< https://www.steroidal.com/steroids-statistics/>, last accessed November 3, 2017.

[2] Rachael Rettner, “Testosterone Prescriptions Nearly Triple In Last Decade”, Live Science, June 3, 2013,

<https://www.livescience.com/37101-testosterone-therapy-prescription-increase.html>, last accessed October 30, 2017.

[3] Josh Hodnik, “The Dangers Of Contaminated Underground Steroids”, Iron Magazine, March 7, 2017,

<http://www.ironmagazine.com/2017/the-dangers-of-contaminated-underground-steroids/>, last accessed October 29, 2017.

[4] Josh Hodnik, “The Dangers Of Contaminated Underground Steroids”, Iron Magazine, March 7, 2017,

<http://www.ironmagazine.com/2017/the-dangers-of-contaminated-underground-steroids/>, last accessed October 29, 2017.

 

Erectile Dysfunction

 

The majority of men aged 50 and above suffer from erectile dysfunction and sexual disorders. According to a study conducted in Massachusetts, 50% of men aged 50 to 70 have some kind of erectile dysfunction. In men older than 70 years old, the percentage jumps to 70%[1]. In 2015-2016 in England, 2.7 millions prescriptions for erectile dysfunction medication have been fulfilled. Since its licensing in 1998, Viagra has been prescribed to more than 64 million people around the world[2]. The current trends show that the world population is rapidly ageing, which will result in a growing need for erectile dysfunction treatment.

In the USA, for someone without insurance coverage, a single pill of Viagra or Cialis cost around $50. The new sex pill for women, Addyi, costs a staggering $800 per month[3]. With prices like these, it is easy to understand why many people avoid the traditional pharmacy route and decide to get their treatment by other means. “Once you get to a certain price point, sex becomes a financial decision, says Dr Elizabeth Kavaler, a sexual dysfunction specialist at New York’s Lenox Hill Hospital. It takes the joy out of this”[4].

In Europe, erectile dysfunction treatment drugs are the most commonly counterfeited[5]. “Between 2004 and 2008, 35.8 counterfeit sildenafil tablets were seized in Europe, which is 7 times greater than the amount of all other counterfeit Pfizer products combined. Two separate analyses in Europe estimated that 0.6 to 2.5 million men are being exposed to illicit sildenafil compared to approximately 2.5 million users of legal sildenafil”[6]. Approximately 16.5% of people using drugs to treat erectile dysfunction have had access to them through unregulated online pharmacies. Even more worrying, 60% of those buyers believe they are getting the same product as if they went to a legitimate pharmacy[7]. However, only 4% of the online pharmacies selling sexual enhancement drugs comply with the Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) program[8]. This program recognises that pharmacies with an online presence are safe and sell legitimate products. Furthermore, “in a random search of Internet pharmacies for Viagra, 90% of these Internet pharmacies offered illegal generic Viagra”. When tested, only 17% of the Viagra coming from online pharmacies was genuine, with the correct drug formulation[9]. Similar results were found in several European countries such as Italy and Austria, and in 2009 in the United Kingdom, when authorities seized more than 2,000 samples of counterfeit Viagra and sent them to Pfizer laboratories for analysis. “The concentration of active sildenafil ranged from 0-200% of indicated strength, and only 10% of the samples contained an active ingredient within 10% of what was advertised on the packaging.[10]

The problem is even bigger in developing countries. “In Indonesia, 100% of Viagra sold by street peddlers, 56% purchased in drug stores, and 13% acquired from legitimate pharmacies was counterfeit Viagra marked as authentic.[11]” In tablets sold as containing 100mg of sildenafil, 64% contained less than 50mg of the product, and only 4.7% contained between 95 and 105mg[12].

If the counterfeit erectile dysfunction drugs do not actually contain the products they claim to be, then what exactly are they made of? Sample analyses have identified harmless bulking agents, but also contaminated products and potentially dangerous substances such as gypsum, non-purified talc, amphetamines, paracetamol, commercial grade paints, and metronidazole. In addition, underground laboratories and factories do not provide satisfactory and safe levels of sterility throughout the manufacturing process of the drugs. As a matter of fact, “in an analysis of microbial loads of various illicit erectile dysfunction drugs, 23 were contaminated with more than 103 colony-forming units, and 69%had elevated levels considered within acceptable limits. Not a single colony-forming unit was detected in any of the approved erectile dysfunction drugs obtained legally.”[13]

 

[1] Jason Chiang et al., “The dangers of sexual enhancement supplements and counterfeit drugs to “treat” erectile dysfunction”, Translational Andrology and Urology, Vol. 6(1), February 2017.

[2] “Reclassifying erectile dysfunction drug Sildenafil as P Medicine Not Such A Big Leap”, The Pharmaceutical Journal, May 19, 2017.

[3] “Can’t Buy Love? Sex Drug Prices Put Medicines Out Of Reach For Some”, CBS News, December 5, 2016.

[4] “Can’t Buy Love? Sex Drug Prices Put Medicines Out Of Reach For Some”, CBS News, December 5, 2016.

[5] Jack A. Counterfeit medicines. Bitter pills. BMJ 2007;335:1120-1. 10.1136/bmj.39412.431655.AD

[6] Jackson G, Arver S, Banks I, et al. Counterfeit phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors pose significant safety risks. Int J Clin Pract 2010;64:497-504. 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02328.

[7] Shaeer O. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011 chapter II: phosphodiesterase inhibitors utilization among English speakers. J Sex Med 2013;10:532-40. 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02972.

[8] Lowe G, Costabile R. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor abuse: a critical review. Curr Drug Abuse Rev2011;4:87-94. 10.2174/1874473711104020087

[9] Campbell N, Clark JP, Stecher VJ, et al. Internet-ordered viagra (sildenafil citrate) is rarely genuine. J Sex Med 2012;9:2943-51. 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02877.

[10] Stecher VJ, Jackson G, Banks I, et al. Analysis of Pharmaceuticals Seized by Authorities for Suspicion of Being Counterfeit Viagra® (Sildenafil Citrate). Lyon, France: European Society for Sexual Medicine, 2009.

[11] Pullirsch D, Bellemare J, Hackl A, et al. Microbiological contamination in counterfeit and unapproved drugs. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2014;15:34. 10.1186/2050-6511-15-34

[12] Taher A, Setiawati A. VICTORY project: a study of counterfeit PDE5 inhibitor (sildenafil) in Indonesia. Acta Med Indones 2013;45:290-4.

[13] Pullirsch D, Bellemare J, Hackl A, et al. Microbiological contamination in counterfeit and unapproved drugs. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2014;15:34. 10.1186/2050-6511-15-34

Pain Management

 

Every day in the United States, more than 650,000 for opioid pain medication are written[1]. “Pain drugs are the second-largest pharmaceutical class globally, after cancer medicines. There was about 300 million pain prescriptions written in 2015.[2]” This equals to a market of $24 billion. Today, around 80% of the world’s opioids are consumed in the United States. If Canada and Western Europe are added to the mix, we get to 95% of the world’s consumption[3].

A spokesman for PurduePharma, one of the leading laboratories producing opioid-based pain medications, said “we’ve led the pharmaceutical industry in developing medications with abuse-deterrent properties”[4], making the use of those drugs safer for patients.

In attempts to save money, some patients needing pain medication will turn to street providers of opioids, and often switch to heroin. It is then impossible to know what the drug is really made of, as it is sometimes cut with fentanyl, an opioid 50 more potent than heroin, to create a lethal combination.

 

[1] CDC Vital Signs, 60(43);1487-1492

[2] Dina Gusovsky, “Americans consume vast majority of world’s opioids”, CNBC, April 27, 2016.

[3] Dina Gusovsky, “Americans consume vast majority of world’s opioids”, CNBC, April 27, 2016.

[4] Dina Gusovsky, “Americans consume vast majority of world’s opioids”, CNBC, April 27, 2016.

Anti-Anxiety

 

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, 18.1% of adults aged 18-54 suffer from anxiety disorders in the United States. This represents around 40 million people across the country[1]. However, some studies estimate the real number to be closer to 30%, after including all those who are not looking for help to treat the condition.

Suffering from anxiety oftens means you will require visits to a general practitioner, buying medication and a therapy treatment. Even with some health care coverage, such a treatment can end being quite costly. With no health care plan at all… it is just unaffordable. When bought without insurance, a single box of Xanax 0.25mg, containing 30 tablets, costs around $60 depending on the store. The price rises to around $75 for  a 0.5mg dosage, and reaches around $100 for 1mg[2].

As a consequence, some people who do not have access to healthcare and suffer from anxiety are more likely to turn to recreational drugs and alcohol to cope with it, as they turn out to be less expensive to buy than the medication they actually need. This comes at a high cost to society, as the Marin Institute estimates 25 to 40% of all patients in US hospitals are being treated for complications resulting from alcohol related problems[3].

Other patients decide to buy anti-anxiety medication from the black market, as they are cheaper there than in pharmacies. However, these can turn out to be deadly. Indeed, in the US, an increasing number of Xanax pills purchased illegally actually contain fentanyl, an opioid 50 to 100 times more powerful than morphine[4].

 

[1] “Facts and Statistics”, Anxiety and Depression Association Of America, <https://adaa.org/about-adaa/press-room/facts-statistics>, last accessed on November, 12, 2017.

[2] “Xanax Price”, True Med Cost.com,

<http://www.truemedcost.com/xanax-price/>, last accessed November 15, 2017.

[3]  “Facts and Statistics”, Anxiety and Depression Association Of America, <https://adaa.org/about-adaa/press-room/facts-statistics>, last accessed on November, 12, 2017.

[4] Susan Zalkind, “Death pill: fentanyl disguised as other drugs linked to spike in US overdoses”, The Guardian, May 10, 2016, <https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/may/10/fentanyl-drug-overdoses-xanax-painkillers>, last accessed on November 12, 2017.

Depression

13% of Americans take anti-depressants regularly, making them one of the most popular drugs in the USA[1]. This represents whopping increase of 65% from the period 1999-2002, when 7.7% of Americans reported being treated with antidepressants. Among them, 68% have been taking them for 2 years or more and 25% have been taking them for 10 years or more.

 

[1] Alexandra Sifferlin, “13% Of Americans Take Anti-Depressants”, Time, August 15, 2017,

< http://time.com/4900248/antidepressants-depression-more-common/>

ADHD

In the United States, an estimated 5% of children suffer from ADHD, according to the American Psychiatric Association[1]. Other studies suggest an even higher number.

Let us look at numbers by age categories. According to the American Psychiatric Association, 11% of children aged 4-17 years have ever been diagnosed with ADHD. This represents 6.4 million individuals in the United States. Around 237,000 children aged 2-5 years were diagnosed with ADHD, according to numbers from 2011-2012.

For 80% of children diagnosed with ADHD, the condition will carry on into adolescence, and for 60% of them it will remain as they become adults[2]. Today, an estimated 4.4% of the adult population in the United States suffers from ADHD, but only 20% of them are looking for help[3].

In 2011, it was reported that 17.5% currently diagnosed with ADHD were not receiving any medication or mental health counseling[4]. In addition, 40% of youth with diagnosable ADHD symptoms are not receiving any treatment[5]. However, when symptoms are not managed properly, ADHD can significantly affect the life of individuals suffering from it, children and adults alike.

Counterfeit ADHD medication can contain tramadol and acetaminophen, which are indicated for treating acute pain and not ADHD. The counterfeits can be found in online so-called pharmacies. Even though they are aware of the risk they are taking, consumers are still willing to buy counterfeit ADHD medication because of their lower price and the speed and convenience of being able to get them on the Internet[6].

 

[1]“ADHD Data and Statistics”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,

<https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html#ref>, last accessed November 15, 2017.

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525089/

[3] https://www.additudemag.com/the-statistics-of-adhd/

[4] https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/features/key-findings-adhd72013.html

[5] https://www.additudemag.com/the-statistics-of-adhd/

[6] http://www.raps.org/focus-online/news/news-article-view/article/1595/

DIABETES

In the USA, more than 100 million adults are suffering from diabetes or pre-diabetes. This equals to 9.4% of the US population living with diabetes, and a whopping 30% with a pre-diabetes condition[1]. In most cases, when ignored or mistreated, pre-diabetes leads to diabetes type 2 within five years. Still, 1 in 4 people suffering from diabetes are unaware of their condition.

In 2015, diabetes was the 7th leading cause of death in the USA. Diabetes patients need closer medical attention due to their increased of risk of developing complications such as vision loss, heart diseases, amputation of lower limbs, stroke, kidney failure, and premature death.

According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetes cost $176 billion in direct medical costs, and an additional $69 billion in reduced productivity in the USA[2]. Furthermore, people with diabetes spend on average 2.3 times more in medical expenditure than someone not suffering from the condition.

Insulin prices keep increasing over the years. While a vial of insulin was cost $17 in 1997, you will have to spend $138 to get the same one today. Another brand, priced at $21 a vial when it was launched 20 years ago is now priced at $255[3].

 

 

[1] https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2017/p0718-diabetes-report.html

[2] http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/?referrer=https://www.google.com.sg/

[3] https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/10/31/why-insulin-prices-have-kept-rising-for-95-years/?utm_term=.a089e5969500

 

 

AIDS

While HIV diagnoses are declining in the USA, more than 36,000 still get infected every year. In 2014, only 62% of people living with HIV received medical care for their condition.

The monthly cost of HIV-fighting drugs is very high for patients, ranging between $250 and $3,700 for the wholesale price[1]. The public pays an even higher price. In January 2017, an average increase of HIV medication cost of 7% was reported[2]. In the meantime, profits of the 6 leading HIV drug pharmaceutical companies increased from $5 billion in 2002 to $25 billion in 2016, solely on HIV drug sales[3].

 

[1] https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/1/adult-and-adolescent-arv/459/cost-considerations-and-antiretroviral-therapy

[2] http://betablog.org/hiv-drugs-price/

[3] http://betablog.org/hiv-drugs-price/

CANCER

In 2016, an estimated 1,685,210 new people have been diagnosed with cancer in the USA, while just under 600,000 have died[1]. The most common types of cancer are breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colon and rectum cancer, bladder cancer, and skin cancer. Mortality is higher among men than women, and among African American men in particular.

By 2020, it is expected that national expenditures for cancer care in the USA will reach $156 billion[2]. Since 1996, the price of injectable cancer drugs has increased by 25%, which comes down to 18% on average after inflation[3]. For example, the monthly cost of Adcetris, commercialised by Seattle Genetics, is now $19,482, up 29% after inflation in the past 4 years.

As a consequence to the soaring prices, cancer patients are more likely to skip or delay medical treatment. According to a study by The Oncologist, 25% of cancer patients decided to not fill a prescription in 2013 because of the cost. Meanwhile, 20% only partially filled their prescription[4].

 

[1] Cancer Statistics, National Cancer Institute,

<https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/statistics>

[2] Cancer Statistics, National Cancer Institute,

<https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/statistics>

[3] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-cancer-drug-prices/cancer-drug-prices-rising-far-faster-than-inflation-idUSKBN1CN285

[4] Robert Durell, “As Drug Costs Soar, People Delay Or Skip Cancer Treatment”, National Public Radio,

< https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/03/15/520110742/as-drug-costs-soar-people-delay-or-skip-cancer-treatments>, last accessed February 20, 2018.

OTHER

An estimated 7.8% of the population in the United States suffers from asthma, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention[1]. This represents around 25 million Americans. In 2015, in the United States, 3,615 individuals died from asthma. However, most of these deaths could have been avoided with proper treatment and care.

[1] “Most Recent Data”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, <https://www.cdc.gov/asthma/most_recent_data.htm>, last accessed November 12, 2017.

GETTING INVOLVED

With such a revolutionary approach to an age old problem, it is easy to see why so many people are buzzing about the release of our project. It is hard not to get behind such a great cause! We have an amazing team of people pushing this project forward but like all things, community can only make us stronger. The faster we grow, the more lives we are able to change. If you are a….

 

Medical Professional or Pharmacist

 

Thousands of doctors  and certified pharmacists worldwide are gaining extra business for their practices through our platform. If you are interested in being the next to provide top notch service to your community and work together with us to make the world a healthier and happier place, please email us at info@pharmaco.com

Thank you from all of us here at PHARMACO the Decentralized Pharmacy, we are excited to serve you and make healthy living affordable for all human beings on this Earth.